The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.



The Arapaho are Native Americans of the plains of Colorado and Wyoming.   Around 3,000 years ago, the ancestral Arapaho-speaking people liven in the western Great Lakes along the Red River Valley of Canada and Minnesota.  They were an agricultural people growing corn and other crops.  With guns obtained from the French the Ojibwe pushed the Arapaho out of their homeland westward onto the Great Plains.  They acquired horses for riding in the 1700s and became nomadic people greatly increasing their success in hunting on the Plains.


  Arapaho Ghost dance 1894.  01:07


Arikara, also known as Sahnish, Arikaree or Ree, are a tribe of Native Americans in North Dakota. Today, they are enrolled with the Mandan and the Hidatsa as the federally recognized tribe known as the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation.



Blackfoot meaning “the people” or “real people” is a collective name for the four bands that make up the Blackfoot people.  They were nomadic bison hunters and trout fishermen, who ranged across the large semi-arid shortgrass prairie areas of the northern Great Plains.  They followed the bison herd migration between the US and Canada.  Riding horses and using them to transport goods, the Blackfoot could extend the range of their buffalo hunts.



The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several southeastern tribes historically inhabiting east Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Oklahoma.  They were descendants of the Caddoan Mississippian culture that constructed huge earthworks mounds in this territory.  Caddo people were forced to a reservation in Texas in 1859.


  Caddo Ghost song.  01:45


The Cahto are an indigenous Californian group of Native Americans. Today most descendants are enrolled as the federally recognized tribe, the Cahto Indian Tribe of the Laytonville Rancheria, and a small.



The Chemehuevi are an indigenous people of the Great Basin. They are the southernmost branch of Southern Paiute.



The Cherokee are one of the peoples of the southeastern woodlands of North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, and the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia.



The Cheyenne are one of the indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family. The Cheyenne comprise two Native American tribes, the Só’taeo’o or Só’taétaneo’o and the Tsétsêhéstâhese.



The Chimakum sometimes called the Port Townsend Indians lived in the northeastern portion of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington until their extinction in 1902.


Chippewa (Objiwe)

The first historical mention of the Ojibwe or Chippewa tribes occurs in the French Jesuit Relation of 1640, a report by the missionary priests to their superiors in France.  Through their friendship with the French traders the Chippewa gained guns, began to use European goods, and began to dominate their traditional enemies. The Lakota and Fox to their west and south.  They drove the Sioux from the Upper Mississippi reagon to the area of the present-day Dakotas and forced the Fox down from northern Wisconsin.



The Comanche or Comancheria are from the Great Plains of New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and northwest Texas. They were hunter-gathers with a horse culture and often took captive selling them as slaves to the Spanish and Mexican settlers.


  Commanche Ghost dance.  01:19


Confederated Salish and Kootenai

The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation are a federally recognized tribe in the U.S. state of Montana.



The Creek homelands were in southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia, and northern Florida.  Most of the original population were forcibly relocated from their native lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory in Oklahoma.



The Goshutes are a tribe of Western Shoshone Native Americans. There are two federally recognized Goshute tribes today: Confederated Tribes of the Goshute Reservation, located in Nevada and Utah Skull.





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