First black slaves in America brought to Spanish colony of Santo Domingo.
Leonardo da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa. Michelangelo sculpts the David (1504).
St. Peter’s Church started in Rome; designed and decorated by such artists and architects as,
and Bernini before its completion in 1626.
Henry VIII ascends English throne.
Michelangelo paints the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Balboa becomes the first European to encounter the Pacific Ocean.
Turks conquer Egypt, control Arabia.
Martin Luther posts his 95 theses denouncing church abuses on church door in Wittenberg—start of the Reformation in Germany.
Magellan reaches the Pacific, is killed by Philippine natives (1521). One of his ships under Juan Sebastián del Cano continues around the world, reaches Spain (1522).
Reformation begins as Henry VIII makes himself head of English Church after being excommunicated by Pope.
Sir Thomas More executed as traitor for refusal to acknowledge king’s religious authority
Jacques Cartier sails up the St. Lawrence River, basis of French claims to Canada.
Henry VIII executes second wife, Anne Boleyn. .
John Calvin establishes Reformed and Presbyterian form of Protestantism in Switzerland, writes Institutes of the Christian Religion
Michelangelo’s Last Judgment
Publication of On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies by Polish scholar Nicolaus Copernicus—giving his theory that the earth revolves around the sun.
Ivan IV (“the Terrible”) crowned as czar of Russia,
begins conquest of Astrakhan and Kazan (1552), battles nobles (boyars) for power (1564),
kills his son (1580), dies, and is succeeded by his weak and feeble-minded son, Fyodor I.
Roman Catholicism restored in England by Queen Mary I
Queen Elizabeth I ascends the throne (rules to 1603). Restores Protestantism, establishes state Church of England (Anglicanism). Renaissance will reach height in England,
Francis Drake returns to England after circumnavigating the globe; knighted by Queen Elizabeth I (1581).
Montaigne’s Essays published.
Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar.
Mary, Queen of Scots, executed for treason by order of Queen Elizabeth I.
Monteverdi’s First Book of Madrigals.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada by English.