H.M.S. Bounty mutineers settle on Pitcairn Island.
Aloisio Galvani experiments on electrical stimulation of the muscles.
Philadelphia temporary capital of U.S. as Congress votes to establish new capital on Potomac.
Lavoisier formulates Table of 31 chemical elements.
U.S. Bill of Rights ratified.
Boswell’s Life of Johnson.
Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette executed.
Reign of Terror begins in France.
Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, spurring the growth of the cotton industry and helping to institutionalize slavery in the U.S. South.
Kosciusko’s uprising in Poland quelled by the Russians.
In U.S., Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania as farmers object to liquor taxes.
Reign of Terror ends with execution of Robespierre.
Napoléon Bonaparte, French general, defeats Austrians.
In the U.S., Washington’s Farewell Address (Sept. 17); John Adams elected president; Thomas Jefferson, vice president.
Edward Jenner introduces smallpox vaccination.
Napoleon extends French conquests to Rome and Egypt.
U.S. Navy Department established.
Rosetta Stone discovered in Egypt.
Napoleon leads coup that overthrows Directory, establishes the Consulate, becomes First Consul—one of three who rule France together.